Sperm Age

  1. Jenkins TG, James ER, Aston KI, et al. Age-associated sperm DNA methylation patterns do not directly persist trans-generationally. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2019;12(1):74. Published 2019 Dec 19. doi:10.1186/s13072-019-0323-4
  2. Jenkins TG, Aston KI, Cairns B, Smith A, Carrell DT. Paternal germ line aging: DNA methylation age prediction from human sperm. BMC Genomics. 2018;19(1):763. Published 2018 Oct 22. doi:10.1186/s12864-018-5153-4
  3. Jenkins TG, Aston KI, Pflueger C, Cairns BR, Carrell DT. Age-associated sperm DNA methylation alterations: possible implications in offspring disease susceptibility. PLoS Genet. 2014;10(7):e1004458. Published 2014 Jul 10. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004458
  4. Janeczko D, Hołowczuk M, Orzeł A, Klatka B, Semczuk A. Paternal age is affected by genetic abnormalities, perinatal complications and mental health of the offspring. Biomed Rep. 2020;12(3):83-88. doi:10.3892/br.2019.1266
  5. Ford WC, North K, Taylor H, Farrow A, Hull MG, Golding J. Increasing paternal age is associated with delayed conception in a large population of fertile couples: evidence for declining fecundity in older men. The ALSPAC Study Team (Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood). Hum Reprod. 2000;15(8):1703-1708. doi:10.1093/humrep/15.8.1703
  6. Petersen CG, Mauri AL, Vagnini LD, et al. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage: an evaluation of 2,178 semen samples. JBRA Assist Reprod. 2018;22(4):323-330. Published 2018 Nov 1. doi:10.5935/1518-0557.20180047
  7. Schwartz D, Mayaux MJ, Spira A, et al. Semen characteristics as a function of age in 833 fertile men. Fertil Steril. 1983;39(4):530-535. doi:10.1016/s0015-0282(16)46946-3
  8. Elzanaty S. Association between age and epididymal and accessory sex gland function and their relation to sperm motility. Arch Androl. 2007;53(3):149-156. doi:10.1080/01485010701225667
  9. Sandin S, Schendel D, Magnusson P, et al. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21(5):693-700. doi:10.1038/mp.2015.70

Sperm Count

  1. Cooper TG, Noonan E, von Eckardstein S, et al. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16(3):231-245. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmp048
  2. Mäkelä JA., Toppari J. (2017) Spermatogenesis. In: Simoni M., Huhtaniemi I. (eds) Endocrinology of the Testis and Male Reproduction. Endocrinology. Springer, Cham

Risk Factors

  1. Zhang W, Li M, Sun F, et al. Association of Sperm Methylation at LINE-1, Four Candidate Genes, and Nicotine/Alcohol Exposure With the Risk of Infertility. Front Genet. 2019;10:1001. Published 2019 Oct 18. doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.01001
  2. Sansone A, Di Dato C, de Angelis C, et al. Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018;16(1):3. Published 2018 Jan 15. doi:10.1186/s12958-018-0320-7
  3. Marinelli D, Gaspari L, Pedotti P, Taioli E. Mini-review of studies on the effect of smoking and drinking habits on semen parameters. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2004;207(3):185-192. doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00283
  4. Babakhanzadeh E, Nazari M, Ghasemifar S, Khodadadian A. Some of the Factors Involved in Male Infertility: A Prospective Review. Int J Gen Med. 2020;13:29-41. Published 2020 Feb 5. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S241099
  5. Chambers TJ, Richard RA. The impact of obesity on male fertility. Hormones (Athens). 2015;14(4):563-568. doi:10.14310/horm.2002.1621
  6. Craig JR, Jenkins TG, Carrell DT, Hotaling JM. Obesity, male infertility, and the sperm epigenome. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(4):848-859. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.02.115
  7. Liu Y, Ding Z. Obesity, a serious etiologic factor for male subfertility in modern society. Reproduction. 2017;154(4):R123-R131. doi:10.1530/REP-17-0161
  8. Giahi L, Mohammadmoradi S, Javidan A, Sadeghi MR. Nutritional modifications in male infertility: a systematic review covering 2 decades. Nutr Rev. 2016;74(2):118-130. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv059
  9. Mehrpour O, Karrari P, Zamani N, Tsatsakis AM, Abdollahi M. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review. Toxicol Lett. 2014;230(2):146-156. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.01.029
  10. Jurewicz J, Hanke W, Radwan M, Bonde JP. Environmental factors and semen quality. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2009;22(4):305-329. doi:10.2478/v10001-009-0036-1
  11. Miranda-Contreras L, Gómez-Pérez R, Rojas G, et al. Occupational exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides affects sperm chromatin integrity and reproductive hormone levels among Venezuelan farm workers. J Occup Health. 2013;55(3):195-203. doi:10.1539/joh.12-0144-fs
  12. Sharma R, Biedenharn KR, Fedor JM, Agarwal A. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:66. Published 2013 Jul 16. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-11-66
  13. Yan X, Dong L, Liu Y, et al. Effects of physical exercises on semen quality and reproductive outcomes in male infertility: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(41):e17494. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000017494
  14. Nargund, V. Effects of psychological stress on male fertility. Nat Rev Urol12, 373–382 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2015.112
  15. Ilacqua, A., Izzo, G., Emerenziani, G.P. et al.Lifestyle and fertility: the influence of stress and quality of life on male fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 16, 115 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-018-0436-9
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